A noun names a person, place, thing, or idea. The two types of nouns are common and proper.

Common nouns refer to one or more of a group of common objects. They may be singular or plural, and they are not capitalized unless they are at the beginning of a sentence..
Examples: woman, car, street

Proper nouns are particular names, denoting a person or thing different from the common group. A proper noun begins with a capital letter.
Examples: Ms. Lee, Ford, Main Street


A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun, generally to avoid confusing repetition of nouns. Depending on the kinds of substitutions they perform, pronouns are divided into classes:

Personal pronouns: I see you.

Demonstrative pronouns: This is Joe’s shirt.

Interrogative pronouns: What did you see?

Relative pronouns: Who, which, what, and that are the most common relative pronouns. I found the car, which was in the garage.

Indefinite pronouns: examples are: one, any, some, another, each, either, none, such, both.

Reflexive pronouns: examples are: myself, yourself, himself, herself.

Numerical pronouns: For some kids, this trip was their first. (Number words are pronouns when they are used in the place of an understood noun.)

Reciprocal pronouns: each other (used with a comparison of two items); one another (used with more than two comparisons).

Adjective pronouns: Some players would have chosen another way.


An adverb is used to describe or modify a verb, and adjective, or another adverb. Most words ending in “ly”are adverbs, but a great number of adverbs do not end in “ly.” Adverbs tell how, when, where, how much, or they qualify a verb by specifying a number or degree.
Examples: They arrived late. Turn left at the corner. They arrived late. Turn left at the corner.


A verb is an action word that tells of the subject’s action, or a word that expresses a state of being. There are two classes of verbs:

A transitive verb must have a direct object, and it carries the action from one person, place, thing, or idea to another.

Example: The sea otter cracked the shell.

An intransitive verb needs no object to complete its meaning, and it carries no action from one thing to another.
Example: The lobster crawls.


A conjunction is a word that joins or connects other words, phrases, clauses, or sentences, A conjunction may also show relation between sentences. Common conjunctions include and, or, but, as, also, so, it, for, and until.
Example: I worked until the job was done.

Parts of a sentence

Naming part – (Subject) names who or what the sentence is about.

Telling part – (Predicate) tells what action happened.


An interjection is used to express sudden or strong feeling. It usually stands alone, and need not have grammatical connections with other words in a sentence,. An interjection is often followed by an exclamation point.
Example: Hooray! Our team won.

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